What is PTSD?


Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition associated with cognitive and affective symptoms that include intrusive thoughts, avoidance or emotional numbing, and hyperarousal. 6.1% of the United States (Philippi, 2019).


May include recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive thoughts and memories of the traumatic event; flashbacks or other prolonged psychological distress; intense psychological distress following exposure to reminders of the event; recurrent and disturbing dreams or nightmares; difficulty sleeping; irritability or outbursts of anger; aggression; aggressive, reckless, or self-destructive behavior; persistent and distorted sense of blame of self or others; detachment from others or diminished interest in activities; difficulty concentrating; hypervigilance; and exaggerated startle response (Piotrowski, 2020).


CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy


DBT (Dialectical Behavior Therapy)

PET Prolonged Exposure Therapy)



Talk Therapy


Lack of social support is strongly associated with mortality and overall quality of life in addition to PTSD symptom maintenance, thus, interventions that improve psychological symptoms and social relationships may encourage long-term recovery (Campbell, 2019). When an individual experiences a terrifying event both right and left hemispheres of the hippocampus reduce in size, neurometabolite levels decrease, and there is an increase of activity in the insula. When the emotion process and fear response are impaired this kicks the amygdala into high gear and the medial prefrontal cortex, (mPFC), which is less responsive and resulting in less control over stress and emotional reaction related to the amygdala. Low cortisol levels are indicative of ongoing stress along with an increasingly level of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF). In the general population the chance of developing PTSD after exposure to a traumatic event is between 5% and 24% (Johnson, 2017).

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